Key words: migration, population, Far North, demography, depopulation, migration loss, region

Abstract. The paper analyzes the migration processes in the Russia's North in the post-Soviet period. Special attention is paid to the period from the beginning of the 2000s to date. Typology of the northern territories based on the migration indicators was done.

Synopsis. Introduction: for many decades, migration of population has been a major factor in the demographic development of the Far North and the localities given the same status. Meanwhile, after the stabilization of the migration loss of the northern population at a relatively low level in the early 2000s, the researchers' interest to this topic waned. As a result, the analysis of the results of migration to the North over the past decade and a half presents only fragmentary data or research on broader topics giving migration a secondary role, as well as works on certain northern regions of the Russian Federation.

Materials and Methods: the paper gives an analysis of the data on migration of population from the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, as well as the data from the 2010 census. The study used classical methods of calculating the indicators of migration at the regional and subregional levels combined for separate time periods. The migration activity factors were calculated on the basis of the current migration records corrected in accordance with the results of the 2010 census.

Results: the study revealed the characteristic age specifics of the northern migration reducing the negative socio-economic effects of the migration loss. The northern territories are divided according to the migration characteristics into the "non-northern", ingenuously northern, and the northern periphery of the non-northern regions, including the semi-periphery and typical periphery.

Discussion and Conclusions: the study showed that a significant part of the migration loss in the northern territories is formed by the people of senior working age which for the northern population in fact means pensioners. Part of the territories of the Far North can not be attributed to the North in accordance with the investigated indicators. Among them are those very uncommon for the North (the Republic of Tyva, Altai, and the south of the Republic of Buryatia) and the northern territories, which are too developed to have typical features of the Far North (the Republic of Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region). This category also includes the northern areas of the Maritime Territory (Primorsky Krai). Among the remaining regions of the "real" North are the entirely northern and the northern periphery of the non-northern regions, while the periphery is divided into the semi-periphery (the areas which have big cities as their centers) and the typical periphery (without any independent centers). Besides, the migration processes in the peripheral northern areas of the non-northern regions are most influenced by their peripheral position than their northern location. In spite of serious difficulties arising when collecting and analyzing data at the subregional level, the further prospects of this and similar works are in the transition to the analysis of data at the municipal level which will improve the quality of research.


1 Postanovlenie Soveta Ministrov SSSR «O porjadke primenenija Ukaza Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Soveta SSSR ot 26 sentjabrja 1967 g. "O rasshirenii l'got dlja lic, rabotajushhih v rajonah Krajnego Severa i v mestnostjah, priravnennyh k rajonam Krajnego Severa"» ot 10 nojabrja 1967 g. № 1029 [The resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On the Order of Application of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from September 26, 1967 "On the Extension of Benefits for Persons Working in the Far North and Areas Equated to the Far North" from November 10, 1967 No. 1029]. Available from: http://www.law.edu.ru/centers/ labourlaw/norm/norm.asp?normID=1405723 (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

2 Perevedentsev VN. Migracija naselenija i trudovye problemy Sibiri [Population Migrations and Labor Problems of Siberia]. Novosibirsk; 1966. 189 p.

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Moscow: Nauka; 2001. 114 p.

4 Zelinsky W. The Hypothesis of the Mobility Transition. Geographical Review. 1971; 2(61):219—249. DOI: 10.2307/213996

5 Heleniak T. Out-Migration and Depopulation of the Russian North during the 1990s. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics. 1999; 3(40):155—205.

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7 Pilotnyj proekt social'nogo restrukturirovanija rajonov Krajnego Severa [The pilot project of social restructuring of the region of the Far North]. Available from: http://www.fer.ru/nrpp/descriptions.htm (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

8 Northern restructuring project: World bank. Available from: http:// documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2010/06/12556480/russian-federation-northern-restructuring-project (accessed 20.06.2016).

9 Zakon Rossijskoj Federacii «O gosudarstvennyh garantijah i kompensacijah dlja lic, rabotajushhih i prozhivajushhih v rajonah Krajnego Severa i priravnennyh k nim mestnostjah» ot 19 fevralja 1993 g. № 4520-1 [The law

of the Russian Federation "About the state guarantees and compensations for the persons working and living in the region of the Far North and equated to them districts" from February 19, 1993 of No. 4520-1]. Spravochnaya pravovaya sistema KonsultantPlyus = Legal reference system ConsultantPlus. (In Russ.)

10 See reference number 5 in the list of References.

11 Zamjatina N, Piljasov A. Sever, social'nye seti i «diaspora naoborot» [North, Social Networks and a "Diaspora the Other Way Round"]. Demoskop Weekly. 2013. Available from: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2013/0547/analit07. php (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

12 Jekonomicheskie i social'nye pokazateli rajonov Krajnego Severa i priravnennyh mestnostej [Economic and social indicators of the Far North and equated localities]. Available from: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/ rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1140096401359 (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

13 Nepersonificirovannaja baza mikrodannyh perepisi naselenija 2010 g. [Impersonal Base of Microdata of the 2010 Censu]. Available from: http:// std.gmcrosstata.ru/webapi/jsf/tableView/customiseTable.xhtml (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

14 Efremov IA. Vozrastnye osobennosti migracionnyh processov na Krajnem Severe Rossii [Age-Related Peculiarities of Migration Processes in the Far North of Russia]. Demoskop Weekly. 2014; 581—582:54—62. Available from: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25736879 (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

15 See reference number 12 in the list of References.

16 Ibid.

17 Edinaja mezhvedomstvennaja informacionno-statisticheskaja sistema [The Uniform Interdepartmental Information Statistical System]. Available from: http://fedstat.ru/indicator/data.do (accessed 20.06.2016). (In Russ.)

18 Ibid.

19 See reference number 12 in the list of References.

20 Ibid.

EFREMOV Igor Aleksandrovich, Postgraduate at the Department of Demography, National Research University «Higher school of Economics», Research Officer at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Research Officer at the Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy (the Settlement of VNIISSOK, Moscow Region, Russian Federation), e-mail: igorefremovnv@yandex.ru.


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