M. A. Zhulina, V. M. Kitsis, S. V. Saraykina. Macroeconomic Characteristics of Tourism Economy in the Republic of Tunisia

UDK 3 38.4(611)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15507/2413-1407.106.027.201902.224-245

Introduction. Tourism is a dynamic, constantly developing sector of the economy. Tourism economy develops along with the society, recreation and tourism. The purpose of the article is to show the features of the impact of tourism on the national economy using the case of Tunisia. The experience of Tunisia is especially useful for the countries where beach recreation has developed and where the political situation has remained difficult for a long time (Egypt, Turkey, Thailand, etc.).

Materials and Methods. The article is based on the statistical data provided by the World Tourism Organization, the World Data Atlas and open Internet sources. The study employed general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, synthesis, comparison, etc.) and special ones (the methods of mathematical statistics, the graphical method, the comparative method, etc.).

Results. For the first time, the article has provided a fairly complete description of the macroeconomic indicators characterizing the level of development of international tourism in Tunisia. The article has analyzed the dynamics of inbound and outbound tourism, discussed the factors affecting the volume of international tourism, considered international tourism expenditures and revenues, which to a large extent have a positive or negative impact on the country’s balance of payments. The trends in the development of international tourism in Tunisia have been revealed and the problems facing the industry have been identified.

Discussion and Conclusion. The research has revealed that tourism economy largely depends on the political and economic processes taking place in the country. The current level of macroeconomic indicators of tourism economy in Tunisia lags behind the 2008–2009 figures. The results of the study made it possible to assess the current state of international tourism and make a number of suggestions aimed at increasing the level of development of international tourism in the country. The results of the study can contribute to the development of a program aimed to boost tourism economy in Tunisia, one of the key tasks of which should be that of increasing performance at the macro-level.

Keywords: tourism economy, macroeconomic indicators, gross domestic product, employment, tourist arrivals and departures, tourism revenues and expenditures


1. Valedinskaya E.N. [The Role and Significance of Strategic Development of Tourism and Hospitality Services in the Regional Economy]. Sovremennye problemy servisa i turizma = Service and Tourism: Current Challenges. 2012; (4):79-86. Available at: https://readera.ru/140206206 (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

2. Vinogradova M.V. Local Tourist Complex and Regional Economy: Socio-Economic Impact. Servis v Rossii i za rubezhom = Service in Russia and Abroad. 2010; (1):132-140. Available at: http://service-rusjournal.ru/index.php?do=cat&category=2010_1 (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

3. Kalitvintseva M.V. Indicators for Assessing the Contribution of Tourism to the Regional Economy: An Analytical Review and Systematization. Rossijskoe predprinimatelstvo = Russian Journal of Entrepreneurship. 2011; 12(9):151-156. Available at: https://creativeconomy.ru/lib/7014 (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

4. Novichkov N.V. Tourism Economy of Region: The Main Features and Trends. ARS ADMINISTRANDI. 2015; (2):105-120. Available at: http://ars-administrandi.com/abstracts.php?id=480 (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

5. Dyadechko V.V. Modern Approaches to Competitiveness Assessment of Enterprise Structures in Tourism. Vestnik Natsionalnoj akademii turizma = Vestnik of National Tourism Academy. 2011; (2):40-43. Available at: http://vestnik.nat-moo.ru/ru/ (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

6. Rubtsova N.V. Concept for Improving Socio-Economic Effective ness of Tourism Activity in Tourist Destination. Vestnik Zabajkalskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta = Bulletin of Transbaikal State University. 2015; (5):119-128. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25107875 (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

7. Rubtsova N.V. The Organizational-Economic Mechanism of Social-Economic Efficiency Improvement of Tourism Activity. Vestnik VSGUTU = ESSUTM Bulletin. 2015; (3):102-108. Available at: http://vestnik.esstu.ru/issues.html (accessed 28.01.2019). (In Russ.)

8. Tsapuk D.A. Marketing Programs and the Promotion of Global Cities in the International Tourist Market. Sovremennye problemy servisa i turizma = Service and Tourism: Current Challenges. 2015; (2):14-24. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.12737/11391

9. Croes R., Rivera M.A. Tourism’s Potential to Benefit the Poor: A Social Accounting Matrix Model Applied to Ecuador. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(1):29-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2015.0495

10. Correia A., Kozak M., Kim S. Luxury Shopping Orientations of Mainland Chinese Tourists in Hong Kong: Their Shopping Destination. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(1):92-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617725453

11. Banerjee O., Henseler M., Maisonnave H., Beyene L.M., Velasco M. An Integrated Model for Evaluating Investments in Cultural Heritage Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(8):1568-1580. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617713229

12. Benítez-Aurioles B. The Role of Distance in the Peer-to-Peer Market for Tourist Accommodation. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(3):237-250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617726211

13. Dikgang J., Muchapondwa E., Stage J. Securing Benefits for Local Communities from International Visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(8):1553-1567. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617707593

14. Fredman P., Wikström D. Income Elasticity of Demand for Tourism at Fulufjället National Park. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(1):51-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617724012

15. Gunter U., Önder I. Determinants of Airbnb Demand in Vienna and their Implications for the Traditional Accommodation Industry. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(3):270-293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617731196

16. Jingwen W., Mingzhu L. Characteristics of Visitor Expenditure in Macao and their Impact on its Economic Growth. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(2):218-233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617749352

17. Tavares J.M., Leitao N.C. The Determinants of International Tourism Demand for Brazil. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(4):834-845. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2016.0540

18. Kostakis I., Theodoropoulou E. Spatial Analysis of the Nexus Between Tourism-Human Capital-Economic Growth. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(7):1523-1534. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617692473

19. Morales J.M.L., Devesa M.J.S. Business Cycle and External Dependence on Tourism: Evidence for Spain. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(1):187-199. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.5367/te.2015.0506

20. Ajogbeje K., Adeniyi О., Folarin О. The Effect of Terrorism on Tourism Development in Nigeria: A Note. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(8):1673-1678. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617692477

21. Altin M., Memili E., Sönmez S. Institutional Economics and Firm Creation in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(7):1382-1397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617689869

22. Koh Y., Defranco A., Back K.-J. Modeling Average Daily Rate (ADR) Volatility Index and Room Price Positioning Matrix. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(7):1476-1483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617702051

23. Mahadevan R. Examining Domestic and International Visits in Australia’s Aboriginal Tourism. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(1):127-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617701440

24. Mendieta-Peñalver L.F., Perles-Ribes J.F., Ramón-Rodríguez A.B., Such- Devesa M.J. Is Hotel Efficiency Necessary for Tourism Destination Competitiveness? An Integrated Approach. Tourism Economics. 2018; 24(1):3-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2016.0555

25. Motta V. Are SMEs in the Hospitality Industry Less Likely to Experi­ence Credit Constraint than other Industries in the Service Sector? Evidence from Latin America. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(7):1398-1418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617692476

26. Aroca P., Brida J.G., Volo S. Tourism Statistics: Correcting Data Inadequacy. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(1):99-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2015.0500

27. Pejanović R., Demirović D., Glavaš-Trbić D., Maksimović G., Tomaš- Simin M. Clusters as a Factor of Competitiveness of Rural Tourism Destinations in the Danube Region of the Republic of Serbia. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(2): 475-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2015.0509

28. Bo Z., Bi Y., Hengyun L., Hailin Q. The Spillover Effect of Attractions: Evidence from Eastern China. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(4):731-743. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2016.0541

29. Tokarchuk O., Gabriele R., Maurer O. Development of City Tourism and Well-Being of Urban Residents: A Case of German Magic Cities. Tourism Economics. 2017; 23(2):343-359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816616656272

Submitted 10.02.2019; accepted for publication 20.03.2019; published online 28.06.2019.

About the authors:

Marina A. Zhulina, Head of the Department of Tourism, National Research Mordovia State University (68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk 430005, Russia), Ph. D. (Geography), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5011-723X, mzhulina@mail.ru

Vyacheslav M. Kitsis, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, National Research Mordovia State University (68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk 430005, Russia), Ph. D. (Geography), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4016-5275, vkitsis@mail.ru

Svetlana V. Saraykina, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, National Research Mordovia State University (68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk 430005, Russia), Ph. D. (Geography), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8050-8992, ssarajjkina@rambler.ru

Contribution of the authors:

Marina A. Zhulina – statement of the scientific problem; academic supervision.

Vyacheslav M. Kitsis – formulation of the theoretical and methodological foundations of the research; writing the text of the article.

Svetlana V. Saraykina – search for analytical materials; preparation of the draft text of the article; drawing up tables and figures; revision of the text of the article.

For citation:

Zhulina M.A., Kitsis V.M., Saraykina S.V. Macroeconomic Characteristics of Tourism Economy in the Republic of Tunisia. Regionology = Russian Journal of Regional Studies. 2019; 27(2):224-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15507/2413-1407.106.027.201902.224-245

The authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
To download article

Лицензия Creative Commons
All the materials of the "REGIONOLOGY" journal are available under Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0