N. P. Kasatkina, N. V. Shumkova. Secondary Employment and Self-Employment of Higher Education Students: The Scale, Structure and Functions (the Case Study of the Republic of Mordovia)

UDК 331.5-057.875(470.345)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15507/2413-1407.109.027.201904.779-800

Introduction. Studying the issues of secondary employment of higher education students, which is a factor in the youth integration into the social and professional structure of society and in the extended reproduction of its human capital, is of particular relevance in the context of the prospects for transformation of the social space of the modern labor market. The processes of differentiation, flexibilization, and expansion of non-standard forms of employment focus on studying the features of the structure of secondary employment of students in terms of identifying self-employment practices as a way of implementing creative and entrepreneurial activities of the youth.

Materials and Methods. The materials of the author pilot focus group study and the data from a sociological survey conducted among final-year students of institutions of higher education in the Republic of Mordovia were used. To carry out an analysis, the methods of calculating the indicators of descriptive statistics, of assessing connections between variables, as well as that of multivariate statistical analysis were employed.

Results. It has been shown that secondary employment of senior undergraduate students of institutions of higher education in the Republic of Mordovia is a common practice. The employment of students is mainly localized in the private sector and is not predominantly related to the profession the institution of higher education trains students for. Self-employment makes up a significant proportion (nearly 25 % of secondary employment. The segment of student self-employment is associated with the provision of a wide range of services, freelance and tutoring being the most popular ones. Self-employment practices are structured by type of activity, depending on gender, as well as on the novelty (or traditional nature) of the work done.

Discussion and Conclusion. Self-employment contributes to students’ adaptation to and integration into the labor market and is a factor in stimulating the migration attitudes of young people and instability of vocational orientations. The practical significance of the research consists in the possibility of using its results by the authorities of the Republic of Mordovia when developing the regional youth policy and state programs in labor and employment, and when optimizing the human resources policies of organizations and agencies.

Keywords: self-employment, secondary employment, employment of higher education students, tutoring, freelance, labor market

Funding. The article was done with the financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Government of the Republic of Mordovia as part of the scientific project ‘Social Space of the Labor Market in the Republic of Mordovia: Youth Self-Employment’ (No. 18-411-130016 r_а).


1. Dikusarova M.Yu. Secondary Employment of Students as a Way to Adapt to the Labor Market. Territoriya novykh vozmozhnostej. Vestnik Vladivostokskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta ehkonomiki i servisa = Тhe Territory of New Opportunities. The Herald of Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service. 2013; (3):177-182. Available at: http://science.vvsu.ru/scientific-journals/journal/current/article/id/21... (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

2. Carr R.V., Wright J.D., Brody C.J. Effects of High School Work Experience a Decade Later: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey. Sociology of Education. 1996; 69(1):66-81. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2112724

3. Gerchikov V.I. [The Phenomenon of the Working Student of an Institution of Higher Education]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya = Sociological Studies. 1999; (8):87-94. (In Russ.)

4. Gerchikov V.I. The Phenomenon of the Working College Student. Russian Education & Society. 2000; 42(6):67-84. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/RES1060-9393420667

5. Krasova E.V. Main Features of Students’ Employment in the Regions of Russia (On Example of Vladivostok and Other Cities). Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Sotsialno-ehkonomicheskie i pravovye issledovaniya = Tyumen State University Herald. Social, Economic, and Law Research. 2017; 3(1):266-285. (In Russ., abstract in Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.21684/2411-7897-2017-3-1-266-285

6. Rodionova A.V. Employment of Students in Context of Learning (On the Example of Saint Petersburg). Teoriya i praktika obshhestvennogo razvitiya = Theory and Practice of Social Development. 2011; (7):80-84. Available at: http://teoria-practica.ru/vipusk-7-2011/ (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

7. Roshchin S.Yu., Rudakov V.N. Combining Work and Study by Russian Higher Education Institution Students. Voprosy obrazovaniya = Educational Studies. 2014; (2):152-179. (In Russ., abstract in Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2014-2-152-179

8. Cherednichenko G.A. The Educational and Professional Trajectories of Secondary School Graduates. Russian Education & Society. 2011; 53(8):19-35. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/RES1060-9393530802

9. Callender C. The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Higher Education Students’ Academic Attainment and Achievement. Journal of Education Policy. 2008; 23(4):359-377. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930801924490

10. King J.E. Crucial Choices: How Students’ Financial Decisions Affect their Academic Success. Washington, DC: American Council on Education; 2002. Available at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED469585 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Eng.)

11. Gleason P.M. College Student Employment, Academic Progress, and Postcollege Labor Market Success. Journal of Student Financial Aid. 1993; 23(2):5-14. Available at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ477819 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Eng.)

12. Kharchenko V.S. Are the Students Taught to be a Freelancer in the Russian High School? Analysis of independent employment in the context of education standards of new generation. Pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie = Pedagogical Education in Russia. 2012; (2):196-199. Available at: http://journals.uspu.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=99:... (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

13. Kharchenko V.S. Combining Work and Study in Universities: New Practices or New Implications? Voprosy obrazovaniya = Educational Studies. 2013; (3):92-104. Available at: https://vo.hse.ru/2013--3/100508673.html (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

14. Kenig V.A. [Establishing the Professional Identity of Students Practicing their Professions]. Professionalnoe obrazovanie. Stolitsa. Novye pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Vocational Education. The Capital. New Pedagogical Research. 2007; (6):64-74. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=14317293 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ.)

15. Yanbarisova D.M. Combining Work and Study in Tatarstan Higher Education Institutions: How Academic Performance Is Affected? Voprosy obrazovaniya = Educational Studies. 2014; (1):218-237. Available at: https://vo.hse.ru/2014--1/117867961.html (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

16. Yanbarisova D. Combining University Studies with Work: Influence on Academic Achievement (December 9, 2014). Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP 21/EDU/2014. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2535776

17. Gorshkov M.K., et al. [Youth Employment in Terms of Motivation and Structure]. Moscow; 2017. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/inab.2017.2

18. Karpenko E.Z. Overemployment of Young Students as a Factor of Reduction of the Quality of Human Capital. Regionalnye problemy preobrazovaniya ehkonomiki = Regional Problems of Transforming the Economy. 2015; (8):69-75. Available at: http://www.rppe.ru/?p=1517 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

19. Drozdikova-Zaripova A.R., Kalatskaya N.N., Kostyunina N.Y. The Research of Educational Motivation of Working and Nonworking Russian Students. Review of European Studies. 2015; 7(5):108-117. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n5p108

20. Vorona M.A. Students’ Employment Motives. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya = Sociological Studies. 2008; (8):106-115. Available at: https://www.isras.ru/socis_2008_8.html (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ.)

21. Rudakov V.N., Chirikov I.S., Roshchin S.Yu., Drozhzhina D.S. The Impact of Academic Achievement on Starting Wages of Russian University Graduates. Voprosy ehkonomiki = Economic Issues. 2017; (3):77-102. (In Russ., abstract in Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-3-77-102

22. Hall R. The Work–Study Relationship: Experiences of full-Time University Students Undertaking Part-Time Employment. Journal of Education and Work. 2010; 23(5):439-449. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2010.515969

23. Humphrey R. Pulling Structured Inequality into Higher Education: The Impact of Part-Time Working on English University Students. Higher Education Quarterly. 2006; 60(3):270-286. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2273.2006.00317.x

24. Apokin A., Yudkevich M. Analysis of Student Employment in the Context of Russian Labor Market. Voprosy ehkonomiki = Economic Issues. 2008; (6):98-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2008-6-98-110

25. Voznesenskaya E.D., Konstantinovskiy D.L., Cherednichenko G.A. ‘To Complete the Course and Get a Job’: A Study of Students’ Secondary Employment. Sotsiologicheskij zhurnal = Sociological Journal. 2001; (3):101-120. Available at: https://www.jour.isras.ru/index.php/socjour/article/view/700 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ.)

26. Gimpelson V.E., Kapelyushnikov R.I. Is it Normal to be Informal? Ehkonomicheskij zhurnal VShEh = HSE Economic Journal. 2013; (1):3-40. Available at: https://ej.hse.ru/2013-17-1/84540458.html (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

27. Nagimova A.M., Safiullina F.R. Combination of University Training with Employment among Kazan’s Students. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya = Sociological Studies. 2014; (4):121-124. Available at: http://socis.isras.ru/article/5901 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

28. Strebkov D.O., Shevchuk A.V. Work Trajectories of Self-Employed Professionals. Mir Rossii = World of Russia. 2015; (1):72-100. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23102570 (accessed 06.07.2019). (In Russ., abstract in Eng.)

29. Davis S.N., Shevchuk A., Strebkov D. Pathways to Satisfaction with Work-Life Balance: The Case of Russian-Language Internet Freelancers. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2014; 35(4):542-556. (In Eng.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-013-9380-1

30. Krasilshchikov V. [Landmarks of the Future? Post-Industrial Society and the Paradoxes of History]. Obshhestvennye nauki i sovremennost = Social Sciences and Contemporary World. 1993; (2):165-175.

Submitted 15.07.2019; accepted for publication 17.09.2019; published online 30.12.2019.

About the authors:

Natalya P. Kasatkina, Leading Research Officer, Scientific Center for Social and Economic Monitoring (39a B. Khmelnitskogo St., Saransk 430005, Russia); Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, National Research Mordovia State University (68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk 430005, Russia), Ph. D. (Sociology), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0940-2087, kasatkina-rri@mail.ru

Natalya V. Shumkova, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, National Research Mordovia State University (68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk 430005, Russia), Ph. D. (Sociology), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2330-0028, niiregion@mail.ru

Contribution of the authors:

Natalya P. Kasatkina – academic supervision; analysis of the literature on the research problem; development of research methodology; qualitative analysis of the results; writing the text of the article.

Natalya V. Shumkova – analysis of the literature on the research problem; data collection and processing; primary interpretation of statistical data; writing the text of the article.

For citation:

Kasatkina N.P., Shumkova N.V. Secondary Employment and Self-Employment of Higher Education Students: The Scale, Structure and Functions (the Case Study of the Republic of Mordovia). Regionology = Russian Journal of Regional Studies. 2019; 27(4):779-800. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15507/2413-1407.109.027.201904.779-800

The authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

To download article

Лицензия Creative Commons
All the materials of the "REGIONOLOGY" journal are available under Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0