I. A. Emelkina, O. N. Fomina. Import Substitution and Parallel Imports in Various Regions of the World: Economic and Legal Analysis

UDК 339.562:332.1

doi: 10.15507/2413-1407.125.031.202304.650-664


Introduction. Import substitution is one of the key tasks of Russian politics and the economy of recent decades, which determines the relevance of studying this concept in other regions of the world to create the prerequisites for its most effective integration in our country. Back in 2022, parallel imports in our country began to be legalized by implementing the international principle of exclusive rights exhaustion. The purpose of the work is to analyze various regional approaches to import substitution and parallel import.

Materials and Methods. The object of the study is the institutions implementing the legal regulation of import substitution and parallel imports in the Latin American, East Asian, North American and African regions, in particular the institution of exclusive rights exhaustion to trademarks, compulsory licensing, etc. in doctrinal and historical aspects. In the course of the study, an analysis of key legal acts related to the registration of import substitution policy and the legalization of parallel imports in the most representative countries of various regions of the world was carried out. The doctrines and judicial practice of some foreign countries concerning import substitution, exclusive rights exhaustion, parallel imports and compulsory licensing were studied.

Results. As a result of the analysis of the import substitution policy in various regions of the world, it was concluded that it is advisable to develop in our country our own most adequate way for introducing import-substituting practices, in particular, combining tariff and non-tariff methods of protectionist influence on the economy. The domestic concept of exclusive law is currently undergoing a stage of transformation from “pro-author” to a kind of “mixed”, giving it uniqueness and identity. The national principle is legislatively enshrined in Art. 1487 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, however, judicial and administrative, in particular customs practice, is already guided by the “pro-market” model, implementing the international principle of exhaustion, laid down in by-laws.

Discussion and Conclusion. We consider it expedient to form at the level of the CIS countries and other friendly states the creation of international organizations with similar functions aimed at paternally regulating the economies of the participating countries and creating optimal conditions for the implementation of the import substitution policy. The data obtained by the authors may be of practical significance for representatives of the legal, economic, business community, practicing lawyers, teachers and entrepreneurs, as well as representatives of the lawmaking initiative.

Keywords: import substitution, parallel imports, international and national principles of exhaustion of exclusive rights, trademark, doctrine of first sale, counterfeiting, foreign imports, substitute imports, industry, protectionist measures, compulsory licensing, exhaustion of intellectual rights

Funding. The article was written on the basis of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration state assignment research programme.

For citation: Emelkina I.A., Fomina O.N. Import Substitution and Parallel Imports in Various Regions of the World: Economic and Legal Analysis. Russian Journal of Regional Studies. 2023;31(4):650–664. https://doi.org/10.15507/2413-1407.125.031.202304.650-664


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Submitted 24.08.2023; revised 03.10.2023; accepted 09.10.2023.

About the authors:

Irina A. Emelkina, Dr. Sci (Laws), Head of the Department of Civil Law and Civil Procedure, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (82 Vernadsky Ave., Bld. 1, Moscow 1119571, Russian Federation), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0071-0163, emelkina-ia@ranepa.ru

Olga N. Fomina, Cand. Sci. (Laws), Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Civil Procedure, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (82 Vernadsky Ave., Bld. 1, Moscow 1119571, Russian Federation), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5152-5662, fomina-on@ranepa.ru

Contribution of the authors:

I. A. Emelkina – research concept; formulation of the goal, objectives of the research; literature review; literature analysis in Russian; preparation of the text of the article.

O. N. Fomina – analysis of foreign literature; generalization of foreign practice; preparation of the text of the article.

The authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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